March 22, 2011

How Women Became Citizens (Hint: It Didn't Happen Overnight!)

Remembering Women's History Month and the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, New Deal 2.0 tells the surprising story of how women became citizens. As author and Roosevelt Institute Senior Fellow Ellen Chesler reveals, the long journey is far from over.
It's hard to fathom today, but for most of human history, and even into our own time, it was simply assumed that women had no need to acquire identities or rights of our own -- except, of course, those enjoyed by virtue of our relationships with men.
This principle was central to defining American women's claims on citizenship at the country's founding. And it stuck around at the heart of the long and fierce opposition women encountered in seeking rights to inheritance and property, to suffrage, and most especially, to control over our own bodies through legal access to birth control and abortion -- a right now ever precarious. Even violence against women was for many years condoned under the principle of male "coverture" that defined women's legal identities. If you can believe it, the U.S. Supreme Court in 1910 denied damages to a wife injured by violent beatings on the grounds that to do so would undermine "the peace of the household."
To be sure, there were challenges to this prevailing point of view. Mary Wollstonecraft's visionary 1792 tract, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, claimed on behalf of women the natural rights theories of the French Enlightenment that upheld the sovereignty of the individual. And in 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton enumerated a long list of injuries against women at Seneca Falls and launched a suffrage campaign that she did not live to see through to its agonized victory an astonishing 72 years later! Hats off as well to the one really good guy of this era who spoke up for women -- the venerable John Stuart Mill, whose 1869 Essay on the Subjection of Women asked for the first time whether home and family are women's only natural vocations, or whether in a world where formal employment was moving outside the home, wives must necessarily follow.
Still, deeply entrenched assumptions about gender roles were hard to overcome. Even when women finally won the vote in 1920, one of the most powerful arguments propelling them to victory was the claim that modern government, in assuming obligation for the education and socialization of children and for the general social welfare, had taken on traditional responsibilities of the household. For many Americans this became the compelling rationale for why women finally needed a voice in their own right.
That same year Margaret Sanger helped inaugurate a modern human rights conversation that moved beyond traditional civil and political claims of liberty on behalf of women to establish reproductive and sexual rights -- realizing her claim that no woman can call herself free until she can decide whether and when she chooses to be a mother. Yet in order to gain widespread support for her cause, even a firebrand like Sanger wound up abandoning polarizing rhetoric about birth control in favor of a more sanitized, public relations-savvy sales pitch that put families ahead of women under the banner of Planned Parenthood, the organization that remains her global legacy. Nor can we forget that as Sanger lay dying in 1965, the Supreme Court argument that at long last provided constitutional protection to the use of contraception (and later abortion in 1973) focused on the protection of marital privacy. Scarcely a word was mentioned about women's equal rights.
So, too, when Progressive-era reformers first sought to protect women workers, they argued that women had responsibilities to households and families and therefore needed a cap on their hours and a floor on their wages. With the best of intentions, the protectionist measures formulated under Muller v. Oregon essentially condoned sex discrimination in employment as the law of the land until the 1970s and 1980s, when Ruth Ginsburg and other then-young women's rights lawyers cobbled together equal protection doctrines and opportunities for women ingeniously derived from Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
We need to remember these developments. Public policy, we know, is largely path dependent. How we think and act today is often determined by a past we don't fully understand. This is particularly true for women who have for so long been denied fair recognition as historical actors. History is to the body politic as memory is to the individual, as veteran historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. once observed. We need to keep our engagement with history lively, as we are bound to lose our way without it.
We need history to help us navigate our own troubled times. We especially need it now as we try to unravel the remnants of "coverture" that still constrain women's civil status and as we do so in the face of an intensifying backlash against women's equality.
The litany of injustices women still face in this country is by now familiar. On the one hand, nearly half of all American workers today are women, and more than a third of them are single heads of household. Their low earnings depress wages overall. On the other hand, in two-income households (though sadly a declining percentage of the total) female earnings are beginning to reach parity with men. In 1980, two thirds of families depended on only a male breadwinner and less than a third of married women with children worked. Today that number is exactly reversed. Yet the myth of traditional domestic arrangements as a norm still persists in our public policies.
Almost alone among Western democracies, the US provides little or no subsidized childcare and few maternity benefits to women. There is no federal legislation beyond a hard-won mandate for unpaid pregnancy and medical leave, which covers only workers in large organizations. Only a handful of states require paid family leave or flexible hours to cover personal obligations. School hours and educational calendars pay little attention to the absence of parents in most homes. Tax policy, wage scales, Social Security benefits, and health insurance formulas all still discriminate in multiple and often devious ways against working women.
To add insult to injury, the impulse to push women out of public roles and back to the private sphere now informs the radical misogyny at the core of the social policy agenda of one of the country's two established political parties. However veiled by claims of fiscal responsibility, the reactionary goals of Republicans now serving in the U.S. Congress are transparently clear.
American women are better educated than ever before. Fewer marry, and those who do wait until they are much older than in generations past. The average size of families has decreased markedly. Labor force participation, as well as civic and political involvement by women, is up despite the many obstacles we still face in balancing obligations at home and at work. Women are driving small business formation and economic growth in this country. They are voting in greater numbers than men and often far more progressively, with significant gender gaps recorded in all but two elections since the 1980s (when anxieties about terrorism in 2002 and about unemployment in 2010 narrowed the divide).
What women in polling and focus groups continually say is that we need more of a helping hand from government -- measures to enforce equal pay, improved benefits for education and health care, and more spending on the social sector. Instead, under the cover of scare tactics about fiscal doom, we get calls to end affirmative action policies and crush the public sector unions that provide secure jobs in traditional roles like nursing and teaching, and in non-traditional, better paying sectors as well. Women say we need more and better reproductive and maternal heath care. What we get instead are bills to eliminate birth control subsidies for the poor, defund Planned Parenthood, recriminalize abortion, and convey rights to fetuses that are then denied to children once they are born.
True enough, the GOP is not telling American women we should no longer vote, or go to college, or own property, or hold a job. But the Republican platform quite clearly opposes the core public policies and legal remedies that have secured us these rights through two centuries of struggle. If given their way, the forces of reaction in our country today would restore a patriarchal order that has taken 200 years to overturn.
The message is clear. The stakes are high. Women's basic claims as citizens in our own right are again at risk. Either we speak up more passionately and reclaim our own historical agency by overturning these injustices, or we condemn our daughters to refight the very battles we once had every reason to think we had won.

This originally appeared on New Deal 2.0.

Сэнгер и Рокфеллеры

From its inception, the Rockefeller Foundation was at the vanguard of the birth control movement. One of the Foundation’s first official acts was to take over and expand the Bureau of Social Hygiene. The Bureau had been founded two years earlier by Rockefeller “Junior,” with the stated intention of investigating the evils of prostitution. In 1913, the Foundation formally took charge of the Bureau and gave it the task of conducting “research and education on birth control, maternal health, and sex education.” “Cettie,” Junior’s mother and John D’s wife, eagerly furthered the project by giving $25,000 to “promote instruction in social hygiene for female students around the country.” At least as early as 1924, under the leadership of Katharine Davis, the Bureau began funding Margaret Sanger’s proposal for birth control clinical studies by the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau.
The Rockefeller family also took a very personal interest in Margaret Sanger’s activities, as the following excerpt from a September 1930 letter to Abby Rockefeller, Jr.’s wife, reveals:
“I wish you could come down and visit us some morning or afternoon in the near future. I know how you may hesitate to do this thinking of publicity, etc., but I wish to assure you that nothing of the kind would happen…The object of this letter, however, was not to tell you my woes, but to thank you for your help and your fine interest, and to tell you how much I appreciate it at this particular time.”
Apparently, this friendship between Sanger and Rockefeller only grew stronger throughout the years. As Abby’s biographer notes, “Margaret Sanger was one of the last of her friends in Arizona to see her [before Abby’s death].” After Abby’s death, Sanger wrote to Rockefeller Jr., to express her condolences: “It was such a joy to me to have had a nice laughing talk with Mrs. Rockefeller the morning you left for New York. I felt then how fortunate you and your children were to have had good rich years of her…care and companionship… her silent backing of our cause gave me great confidence through the years of darkest night.”
The Rockefeller Foundation, to this day, continues to provide significant support to Planned Parenthood. The International PP Medical Bulletin, for example, is primarily underwritten by the Foundation and is even linked to the Rockefeller Foundation website. The Foundation has also sponsored New York University’s Margaret Sanger Papers Project. Most importantly, the Rockefellers determined the very tenure of U.S. and international discussions about birth control and abortion. First, through funding population research and control initiatives at prestigious universities, such as Harvard, Baylor, Case Western Reserve, Chicago, the University of Chile, Columbia, Cornell, Hacettepe University in Turkey, the University of Michigan, North Carolina, Princeton, Tulane and the University of Washington. And, second, through the establishment of the Population Council, the world’s first truly global population control foundation.
[From "Robbing the Cradle: The Rockefellers’ Support of Planned Parenthood"]

ист (на странице скрипт, жутко тормозит, мб, вирус + ссылка на Рокфеллер файл, кой качнул)

Сэнгер и кондом

In an ideal society, no doubt, birth control would become the concern of the man as well as the woman. The hard inescapable fact which we encounter to-day is that man has not only refused any such responsibility, but has individually and collectively sought to prevent woman from obtaining knowledge by which she could assume this responsibility for herself.  She is still in a state of a dependent to-day because her mate has refused to consider her as an individual apart from his needs.  She is still bound because she has in the past left the solution of the problem to him. Having left it to him she finds that instead of rights, she has only such privileges as she has gained by petitioning, coaxing and cozening. Having left it to him, she is exploited, driven and enslaved to his desires.”

(1920 Woman and the New Race pp. 96-97)

March 21, 2011

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

Сэнгер была как-то замешана и в этом пожаре, точнее, наверно в расследовании и раздаче слонов
25 марта -- 100 лет

New York’s landmark industrial disaster that killed 146 of the factory's 500 employees, most of them young immigrant women and girls of Italian and European Jewish descent. The tragedy sparked a nationwide debate about workers rights, representation and safety.
The walk, researched and written by former New York Times editor Betsy Wade and historian James Boylan, celebrates such leaders as Frances Perkins, who commissioned hearings as chief investigator on fire hazards after witnessing the Triangle Fire, as well as Margaret Sanger, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth, and Brenda Berkman, one of the female firefighter first responders on 9/11.

экскурсия по Новому Йорку

первая остановка -- нижний Мантеттен (М Сэнгер)

Paterson Silk Strike of 1913

Silk workers, largely Italian and Jewish immigrants, went on strike to protect their jobs and wages from increasing mechanization and to win an eight-hour work day. They drew support from the Industrial Workers of the World, and feminists such as Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a leader of IWW, and Margaret Sanger, a founder of Planned Parenthood. Artists and radicals from Greenwich Village also took up the silk workers’ cause. The Paterson Strike Pageant at Madison Square Garden raised money for the striking workers. The Botto House in nearby Haledon became a gathering place for supporters to meet with strikers, and is the site of the American Labor Museum today.
But the strike failed and the IWW never recovered its momentum. Six years later, the workers got their eight-hour day.
The national significance of the Paterson strike was not about bare survival or terrible working conditions, said Steve Golin, professor emeritus of history at Bloomfield College, who wrote about the strike in “The Fragile Bridge: Paterson Silk Strike 1913.”
“It was about protecting a way of life that was pretty good, and passing it on to their children,” he said. “The strike foreshadowed the effort by labor and the Democratic Party to create a middle-class lifestyle for working people.”

March 18, 2011

ещё одно опровержение от MSPP

In cold blood by T Capote
молодцы, не ленятся разгребать льющееся нескончаемым потоком дерьмо

но, замечу, что нормальный человек всегда проигрывает подонку, потому что подонок пойдёт на всё, а нормальный человек -- нет; для него и законы писаны и мораль тоже его

как раз сейчас читаю In cold blood by T. Capote, идея, конечно, не новая, но от этого она не становится неверной (любезное сердцу.ру двойное отрицание)

March 17, 2011

женский месячник или месячные женщины

Thus, historians like David M. Kennedy and Ellen Chesler were able to celebrate the fact that Margaret Sanger enhanced the ability of many women to have reproductive choices by her work on behalf of “family planning,” a term that rendered birth control more acceptable to a popular audience, while also noting that her decision to enter into a partnership with the American Medical Association and support of a “doctors only” approach to prescribing contraceptive devices rendered access to effective contraception nearly impossible for many working-class and poor women.

Moreover, the leading role that Sanger played in the eugenics movement betrayed the socialist principles that underlay her initial championship of birth control as she came to embrace instead the eugenic principle of more children from the fit and fewer from the unfit.

source статья о женском движении в США и роли МС как новой струи

последние дни в Аризоне

Margaret Sanger in Tucson: “Daring to Live”

“When the marvel of the spring came to the desert, you saw the cactus and the flowering, saw the brown floor change to delicate pale yellow, stood in awe of nature daring to live without water. You were reminded of the futility of wearing out your life merely providing food and raiment. Like the challenge of death, which so many of the people there were gallantly facing, the desert itself was a challenge.” – Margaret Sanger on Tucson, in her autobiography

Margaret Sanger in 1959, with friend Grace Sternberg, returning to the United States after a trip to New Delhi, Sanger's final overseas trip.
Margaret Sanger moved to Tucson in the 1930s and soon thereafter decided to live here full time, believing that the warm climate was conducive to good health. During Sanger’s years in Tucson, she latched onto any health fad or other technique she thought might improve her health. She exercised and experimented with various diets, including fasting on juice; eating a combination of yogurt, wheat germ, and honey; taking vitamin E supplements; and eating papayas (which she had shipped from Hawaii) for their alleged “restorative substances.”
In 1949, however, Sanger suffered a heart attack, and her son Stuart, a doctor, injected her with Demerol, a recently introduced painkiller not considered addictive at the time. The next year she had a second heart attack, resulting in another long convalescence at the hospital. Her addiction to Demerol intensified; she got Stuart to write prescriptions for her, and would sometimes falsely claim that bottles of the drug had fallen and shattered, which would require further prescriptions to be written. If a nurse refused her demand for Demerol, Sanger would inject it herself. Her son tried to wean her from the drug by collecting empty bottles and filling them with a diluted concentration of the drug, slowly increasing the proportion of water to Demerol until the solution was pure water. This was effective for a while, but eventually Sanger realized she had been duped and endeavored to get her hands back on the drug. She went through other doctors, firing them when they would decrease her dosage, and eventually took to self-administering injections of pure water every 30 minutes. Her addiction, it seemed, was both to the drug itself and the psychological comforts of the injection. 
As she continued into old age, Sanger would sometimes walk into the streets at night, clad in her nightgown, occasionally arriving at Stuart’s house, her face bruised from falling down on the asphalt. Stuart experimented with having Sanger stay with him, but eventually found it was better for her to stay in her own house next door. In the summer of 1962, Sanger was declared senile and afflicted with advanced arteriosclerosis. The Superior Court of Pima County appointed Stuart as her legal guardian, and after home care failed she was sent to a nursing home called the House By the Side of the Road. This caused some controversy, as some of Sanger’s friends felt – incorrectly – that her son was stashing her away in a home so he could keep all of her money.
Stuart had sent her bed and some of her rugs to the home so she could enjoy the familiarity of her belongings in her new residence. At the nursing home, Sanger was weaned from Demerol once and for all. She found enjoyment in her daily eggnog (spiked with brandy), her wheelchair rides around the grounds of the home, daily facial massages, and many visitors (including Alan Guttmacher and oral-contraception pioneer John Rock). She was only allowed two visitors each day, and there were many who wished to see her. Because of her senility, however, she did not always recognize her guests.
On September 6, 1966, Sanger died of arteriosclerosis, just shy of her 88th birthday. Her estate of $5 million had dwindled to $100,000. A private service took place at St. Phillips-in-the-Hills, the Episcopal Church Sanger had attended sporadically as a Tucson resident. Rev. George Ferguson eulogized her, and a few family members and local friends were in attendance. The reverend talked about Sanger’s achievements and also reminisced about her joie de vivre, varied interests, and extravagant parties. A more widely attended memorial service was held at St. George’s Church in Stuyvesant Square, New York.

бардак с наследниками Кинга

His wife accepted it on his behalf and read a speech which includes, "There is a striking kinship between our movement and Margaret Sanger's early efforts... Like all poor, negro and white, they have many unwanted children... This is a cruel evil they urgently need to control... We spend paltry sums for population planning, even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet."

наследники утверждают, что он этой речи не толкал, и всё это выдумка, хотя прошло уже более 40 лет, нет видимо и свидетелей: откуда взялась сама речь

живая евгеника

В новом Гэпшире делили бюджет:

Harty then stated, "I wish we had a Siberia so we could ship them all off to freeze to death and die and clean up the population."

A 91-year-old state representative Barrington Republican Martin Harty told Sharon Omand, a Strafford resident who manages a community mental health program, that "the world is too populated

March 11, 2011

простенько и со вкусом

разблюдовочка для шпаргалки:

Tragically the Molech paradigm lives in modern times in the ideas of Humanism (man is god), Machiavelli (the end justifies the mean), Rousseau (glorification of the primitive condition without law or morality), Social Darwinism (evolution, natural selection, survival of the fittest), Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin (communism, state socialism), Nietzsche (will to power), Freud (sex is god), Margaret Sanger (radical feminism, eugenics, selective breeding/sterilization, abortion) and John Dewey (progressive education as anti-education).

что американцу нипочом, то немцу -- смерть :)

I read a bit about one of Sanger’s contemporaries, Madison Grant and his advocacy of the Nordic Theory, which became the basis of Nazi Germany’s Aryan race programs – Adolph Hitler himself calling  Grant’s book, The Passing of the Great Race, his “bible”.

But what struck me was the fact that Grant’s book was not only admired in post World War One Germany, but was enormously popular in the United States, reportedly selling 1.6 million copies between 1916 and 1937.  It is hard not to believe that Sanger was not familiar with Grant’s work, and it is hard not to hear echos of Grant in Sanger’s feelings on immigration and “undesirables” expressed in her belief in negative eugenics.

любопытно, что Джеферсон действительно торговал рабами, а Грант (и не только он 1) был расистом, но на общей приверженности США демократии и свободе это не сказалось, а вот немцам вышло боком


Gspot: Sanger vs Nazi -- does anybody know herstory?

in 1950, Ernst Grafenberg, a gynecologist and German Jew — who escaped the Nazis with the help of the early feminist and birth-control crusader Margaret Sanger — wrote about the keen sensitivity of a small area within the vagina, partway up the front wall.

Source: looking for a Gspot

wikilink = Ernst Gräfenberg: From Berlin to New York

In 1937 he was arrested for allegedly having smuggled a valuable stamp out of Germany. When influential friends of the International Society of Sexology discovered what had happened, the U.S. consulate began negotiations and deposited a large ransom for his release. It is reported that his release from prison was negotiated by Margaret Sanger of New York. In 1940 he was finally able to leave Germany and emigrate to California, traveling via Siberia and Japan (Lehfeldt & Wheeler, 1994; Semm & Giese, 1983).

March 9, 2011

к 8 марта

Of course allowing for full access was not easy (those pesky Comstock Laws!), but Sanger and her followers forged ahead.
Note: some anti-choice folks have been quick to unjustly denounce Sanger as a Eugenicist and racist. Planned Parenthood of New Jersey features an excellent fact sheet rebutting these accusations. Check it out to get the full and accurate story.

We need to channel our anger into a positive outlet, as Sanger did when faced with such emotions following her mother’s death; we can channel our feelings into advocacy, volunteer efforts, and telling the government why their policies are failing today’s women.

Источник: Never Give Up and Other Lessons We Can Learn from Margaret Sanger

1: Steinem, Gloria. “Margaret Sanger.” Time Magazine 100. April 13, 1998.
2: Centers for Disease Control. “Margaret Sanger.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. December 3, 1999 48(47): 1075.
3: “Biographical Sketch.” Margaret Sanger Papers Project. December 6, 2002.
Photo from Business Week
To learn more:
Chesler, Ellen. Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Sanger, Margaret. The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger. New York: Dover Publications, 2004.
Sanger, Margaret. “This I Believe.” First broadcast on Edward R. Murrow’s This I Believe in November 1953.

источник: Women’s History Month: Celebrate Margaret Sanger

March 7, 2011

The Comstock Law

“Be it enacted That whoever, within the District of Columbia or any of the Territories of the United States shall sell or shall offer to sell, or to lend , or to give away, or in any manner to exhibit, or shall otherwise publish or offer to publish in any manner, or shall have in his possession, for any such purpose or purposes, an obscene book, pamphlet, paper, writing, advertisement, circular, print, picture, drawing or other representation, figure, or image on or of paper of other material , or any cast instrument, or other article of an immoral nature, or any drug or medicine, or any article whatever, for the prevention of conception, or for causing unlawful abortion, or shall advertise the same for sale, or shall write or print, or cause to be written or printed, any card, circular, book, pamphlet, advertisement, or notice of any king, stating when, where, how, or of whom, or by what means, any of the articles in this section can be purchased or obtained, or shall manufacture, draw, or print, or in any wise make any of such articles, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof in any court of the United Stateshe shall be imprisoned at hard labor in the penitentiary for not less than six months nor more than five years for each offense, or fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars, with costs of court.”

многие слышали, но немногие видели (ист)
на нонешние деньги практически экстремизм

Rehabilitating eugenics

Ten years ago, in February 2001, to great fanfare, the draft human genome sequence was published. US President Bill Clinton had celebrated the completion of the project the year before as if man had just landed on Mars: “Genome science will have a real impact on all our lives — and even more, on the lives of our children. It will revolutionize the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of most, if not all, human diseases.”
That was the hype. The reality is impressive, but hardly revolutionary. As Nature commented in its editorial for the occasion, “the complexity of post-genome biology has dashed early hopes that this trickle of therapies would rapidly become a flood.”
Scientists are acutely aware of the gap between promise and performance. The battle against common diseases still has not advanced much, because so many genes are involved. But somehow their battle-weary scepticism has failed to filter down to the science-dazzled public.
Biopolitical Times, an excellent blog based in California, has taken to running a brief feature called “gene of the week”. These are based on press releases from scientists (normally social scientists) proposing correlations between genes and personality types.
There is the “slut gene” which disposes people to one-night stands, a gene for being in a gang, an early-loss-of-virginity gene. There’s a "ruthless dictator gene”; there are two genes which predispose you to vote; there are genes which dispose you to vote Democrat. There are genes for victimhood, shyness and being a picky eater.
However absurd these sound, they send a serious message. They demonstrate that there is a hunger to believe that we are genetically determined. And wherever there is a hunger to believe, there are people ready to feed that belief.
It comes as no surprise that a Singapore company is marketing a genetic test to anxious parents which promises to test for 68 genes ranging from “Propensity for Teenage Romance Gene” to an “Explosive Power Gene”? (US$$8,871 worth of tests for a one-time-only price of $1,397!)
It’s impossible to know how many people were gullible enough to take the bait for this product. But I suspect that some people have a gene for belief in genetic determinism whose effects are magnified by higher education.
Take this incredible case from New York. A Federal District Court judge in Albany sentenced a man based on an as-yet-undiscovered gene. He spurned reports that a man convicted of possessing child pornography was “at a low to moderate risk to reoffend”. The man clearly had a child-porn-viewing gene which no scientist had ever heard of.
The judge told the defendant, “It is a gene you were born with. And it’s not a gene you can get rid of”. Nor did Judge Sharpe need evidence -- because he was sure that it would be discovered within 50 years. “You are what you’re born with. And that’s the only explanation for what I see here,” the judge said. (The sentence was successfully appealed.)
This speaks volumes about the magical power of genetics to subvert common sense. The belief that all behaviour is genetically determined has obviously sunk deeply into the public consciousness. Using the word “eugenics” has become taboo; believing in eugenics is widespread. 
And even amongst bioethicists.
Julian Savulescu, an Australian who is currently a professor of practical ethics at Oxford, recently declared that parents are morally obliged to genetically engineer their children so that they will have higher IQs. "There are other ethical principles which should govern reproduction, such as the public interest," he said. This policy would reduce welfare dependency, crowding in jails, school dropout rates and poverty. "Cheaper, efficient whole genome analysis makes it a real possibility in the near future."
Anyone who thinks that eugenics is dead and buried with the Nazi regime is deluding himself. Eugenics has clawed its way out of the grave and is being rehabilitated.

Michael Cook is editor of MercatorNet.(ссылка на оригинал)

March 6, 2011

1934 Дюлу Йоша

Дьюла Ийеш (также Дюла Ийеш; венг. Illyés Gyula, [ˈijːeːʃ ˈɟulɒ]; 2 ноября 1902(19021102), Фельшёрацегрешпуста, медье Тольна15 апреля 1983, Будапешт) — венгерский поэт, писатель и переводчик, один из лидеров «народных писателей» — реалистического направления в венгерской литературе второй четверти XX века.

Россия 1934

дневник М. Кузмина 1934 года

Михаи́л Алексе́евич Кузми́н 
(6 (18) октября 1872, Ярославль — 1 марта 1936, Ленинград)
— русский поэт Серебряного века, переводчик, прозаик, композитор.

текст дневника

бонус = Уильям Ширер "Взлет и падение Третьего рейха";

полезные ссылки

есть специальная глава про 1934 год

События 1934 года на хроно.ру
  • 1934.01.14 В Испании на парламентских выборах в Каталонии победу одерживают левые. Во всех остальных провинциях большинство голосов получают правые партии.
  • 1934.01.26 СССР. (26 янв. - 10 февр.) XVII съезд партии, т. н. съезд победителей
  • 1934.01.26 Германия и Польша подписывают Пакт о ненападении сроком на 10 лет.
  • 1934.01.30 В Германии принят Закон о переустройстве империи.
  • 1934.02.12 Всеобщая забастовка во Франции в знак протеста против опасности роста фашистского движения в стране (до 13 февраля).
  • 1934.04.07 В Индии Махатма Ганди временно прекращает кампанию гражданского неповиновения.
  • 1934.06.08 Освальд Мосли выступает с речью на массовом митинге Британского союза фашистов в Олимпии, Лондон
  • 1934.06.19 Принятый в США Закон о покупке серебра санкционирует приобретение серебра для частичного обеспечения доллара.
  • 1934.06.29 "Ночь длинных ножей" в Германии. Решив покончить с влиянием штурмовых отрядов (СА), нацисты организуют чистку своих рядов. Среди жертв оказываются руководитель штурмовых отрядов Эрнст Рем генерал Курт фон Шлейхер, свыше 70 видных нацистов и большое число рядовых членов партии (казни продолжаются до 2 июля).
  • 1934.07.01 В Германии прекращаются все финансовые операции по выполнению долговых обязательств за рубежом.
  • 10 июля  СНК СССР принял постановление «Об образовании общесоюзного Народного комиссариата внутренних дел СССР» (НКВД). Постановление предусматривало создание Особого совещания при НКВД СССР с правом внесудебного вынесения приговоров, вплоть до смертной казни.
  • 22 июля в Чикаго полицией убит Джон Дилинджер
  • 23 июля Сталин встретил Герберта Уэллса в Кремле
  • 1934.08.01 В Германии умер президент Пауль фон Гинденбург (в возрасте 87 лет, похоронен в Таненберге, ныне Стембарк, Польша). Вскоре после этого принимается Закон о верховном главе Германской империи, т.е. о совмещении постов президента и канцлера, после чего все военные присягают на верность Адольфу Гитлеру как фюреру (вождю) германского народа.
  • 15 авг - 1 сент первый съезд советских писателей
  • 1934.08.19 В Германии проводится плебисцит по вопросу о наделении фюрера Адольфа Гитлера исключительной исполнительной властью. 89,9 процента граждан одобряют это изменение в системе государственной власти.
  • 25 августа умер Нестор Махно
  • 1934.09.18 СССР вступает в Лигу Наций.
  • 1934.10.09 В Марселе, Франция, террорист-хорват убивает короля Югославии Александра. Новым королем становится его младший сын Петр II
  • 15 окт -- пробный рейс метро Сокольники-Комсомольская
  • 1934.10.21 В Китае начинается "великий поход" китайских коммунистов под руководством Мао Цзэдуна (завершается 20 октября 1935 г.). Подвергаясь непрерывным атакам гоминьдановской армии, около 100 тысяч человек покидают Советский район Цзянси в Южном Китае и совершают переход протяженностью 9600 км в Яньань, расположенный в северной провинции Шэньси.
  • 1934.12.01 В СССР убит Киров С.М., входящий в четверку высших коммунистических руководителей. (Подозревают, что убийство совершено с молчаливого согласия Сталина.) По обвинению в убийстве казнены сам убийца, 13 соучастников и еще 103 человека.

March 3, 2011

контроль техасской рождаемости

"'All Good Things Start with Women,': the Origin of the Texas Birth Control Movement, 1933-1945," was written by Harold L. Smith, a professor of History at the University of Houston-Victoria.

по ссылке ссылка на статью, но она (ссылка) не работает
попросил поправить -- посмотрим

удачный день, хотя и на солнце есть пятна

сегодня вместо обычного полива несколько просэнгеровских материалов, и даже с картинками :)

Ironically, while she believed that both men and women should have access to contraception in order to enjoy sex without worry in addition to preventing pregnancy, Sanger believed masturbation to be ill-advised, even dangerous, both mentally and physically. (тут она дала маху:)

She became a believer in sexual liberation, separated from her husband, and proceeded to have affairs with a number of different men, and continued to do so after marrying her second husband.

She also embraced the philosophy of negative eugenics, which included full access to contraceptives for people of sound mind and body, as well as refusing entrance to immigrants who were mentally handicapped or carried STD's, and forced sterilization of the severely mentally handicapped, though she was thoroughly opposed to euthanasia, and the kind of eugenics specifically proposed in Nazi Germany.

Her article, "The Case for Birth Control," outlines the precise situations in which pregnancy and birth should and should not occur. This includes a significant nod to the health and well-being of the potential mother and the quality of life of the potential children, but also references to wider social implications. She also argued that access to birth control would have a civilizing effect on society, which she said, "implies the development and the actual realization of the inherent potentialities of the individual and the race."

accept vs challenge

“Woman must not accept; she must challenge. She must not be awed by that which has been built up around her; she must reverence that woman in her which struggles for expression.”
Margaret Sanger
источник говорит об Индии

заключение из хорошей биографической статейки:

Margaret Sanger died in 1966 at the age of 86 in Tucson, Arizona, a feminist pioneer and benefactor of generations of women during her lifetime and after. In recognition and honor of her lifetime struggle on behalf of women, and of families, please consider signing the petition here or linked further down, below the editorial cartoon, on behalf of Planned Parenthood.