July 29, 2010

The Life Story Of Margaret Sanger

The Life Story Of Margaret Sanger
The Life Of Margaret Sanger:Margaret Sanger Slee Higgins (14 September 1879 – September 6, 1966) is an American birth control activist and founder of the American League for Birth Control.
The Life Of Margaret Sanger:
Margaret Sanger was born in Corning, New York. Margaret Sanger’s mother, Anne Purcell Higgins, was a devout Catholic who survived 18 pregnancies (11 live births)  to die of tuberculosis and cancer of the cervix. Sanger’s father, Michael Higgins, Hennessy, earning a living, bore the angels and saints of the huge blocks of white marble or gray granite gravestones ” , as well as an activist women’s suffrage, and free public education. Sanger was the sixth of eleven children  , and spent much of his youth assistance in housekeeping and care of her younger brothers and sisters. Sanger attended Claverack College, a boarding school in Claverack within two years. The sisters paid her tuition fees. Sanger returned home in 1896 following his father’s request to return home to feed the mother. Her mother died March 31, 1896. By the end of the century, the mother of one of his friends arranged for her Claverack enroll in the program of care in a hospital in White Plains, New York-rich suburbs. In 1902, Margaret Higgins
married architect William Sanger and the couple settled in New York. Margaret Sanger was developed tuberculosis as a result of caring for her sick mother and her own fatigue and Sangers moved to Saranac, New York Adirondacks, for health reasons. In 1903 she gave birth to her first child, Stuart.
In 1912, after a fire destroyed the house, her husband was developed, Sanger and her family moved to New York where he went to work in the slums of East Side of Manhattan. In the same year she also began writing a column for the New York Call “What Every Girl Should Know.” Distribution of brochures, Family Limitation, for women, Sanger repeatedly caused scandal and threatened with imprisonment, in violation of the Comstock Law of 1873, which outlawed as obscene distribution of contraceptive information and devices.
Sanger felt that in order for women to have more “equal” in society, both physically and mentally healthy life, they should be able to decide when a pregnancy is most convenient for himself.   In addition, access to birth control and carry out a critical psychological need, allowing women to be able to fully enjoy sexual relations without being burdened by the fear of pregnancy.
Sanger and her husband William moved to New York in 1910. They plunged into the radical bohemian culture, which was then flourishing in Greenwich Village . Margaret Sanger friends with local intellectuals, artists and public figures. Some of the more famous friends, they were associated with were John Reed, Upton Sinclair, Mabel Dodge, and Emma Goldman.
As Margaret Sanger worked in Lower New York East Side with the poor women who were repeatedly suffering from frequent childbirth and abortion herself, she began to talk about the need for women to get acquainted with the state of birth control. Although she worked as nurse, Sanger met Sadie Sachs, where she was called to his home to help her after she became extremely ill due to spontaneous abortion. Then Sachs asked the attending doctor to tell her how she could let this happen again, that the doctor simply gave advice to remain moderate  . A few months later, Sanger once again called back to the apartment Sachs, only this time, Sachs, was found dead after a new self abortion  . This was a turning point in their lives in Sanger. difficult Sachs’ was not unusual for this period . Margaret Sanger believed, then, more than ever that she wanted to do something to help desperate women, before they were forced to follow the dangerous and illegal abortions .
Margaret separately from her husband, William in 1913. In 1914, Sanger began Rebel Woman, 8 pages per month newsletter promoting contraception, with the slogan “No Gods and No Masters” (and chasing birth control  and every woman to be “the absolute mistress of your own body.” She is accused of violating U.S. laws on postal obscenity in August 1914, but jumped bail and fled to England under the alias “Bertha Watson. Sanger returned to the U.S. in October 1915 and her 5-year-old daughter, Peggy, died November 6  .
In 1915, William Sanger circulated a copy of the publication of his wife, family restrictions, to the postal worker who was actually an illegal situation. Because he was found to be distributing “indecent” material, he was imprisoned for 30 days, while his wife was still in Europe.
Family Planning Clinics :
In 1915 Sanger visited the Dutch birth control clinic, where she found that the diaphragm is actually more effective means of contraception than candles and soul that it extends back to the United States . This realization began to slow introduction of the membrane in the United States with Sanger later illegally smuggle them into the country  .
In 1916, Sanger published, that every girl should know, which was later widely used as one of the E. Haldeman-Julius “Blue Book”. It provides information on issues such as menstruation and sexuality among adolescents. This was followed in 1917 that every mother should know. She also started a monthly magazine of Birth Control Review and birth control News and contributed articles on health on paper of the Socialist Party, Call.
On October 16, 1916, Sanger opened a family planning and birth control clinic at 46 Amboy St. in Brownsville area of Brooklyn, the first of its kind in the United States. He was searched nine days later the police. She served 30 days in jail. The initial appeal was rejected, and in 1918 a written opinion of Judge Frederick E. Crane in New York appellate court allowed doctors to prescribe contraceptives.
Sanger founded the American Birth Control League (ABCL) in 1921. In 1922 she came to Japan to work with the Japanese feminist Kato Shidzue promote fertility; in the next few years, she returned six more times for this purpose. In the same year she married her second husband, oil magnate James Noah H. Slee.
In 1923, under the auspices of the ABCL, she established a Clinical Research Bureau (CRB). Sanger eventually found a loophole in the system, when she learned that doctors were exempt from the law, which prohibits the dissemination of contraceptive information to women when prescribed for medical reasons.   With the help of his wealthy supporters, Sanger was finally able to open the first legal clinic of birth control, which was staffed by only women doctors and social workers. It was the first legal clinic, birth control in the U.S. (renamed Margaret Sanger Research Bureau in 1940). She received a major grant from the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. with the Bureau of Social Hygiene in 1924. Grants were made anonymously to avoid public exposure Rockefeller’s agenda. Families also consistently supported its efforts in respect of population contro.
In addition, in 1923 she formed the National Committee on federal legislation to regulate fertility and served as president until its dissolution in 1937 after the birth control, under medical supervision, was legalized in many states. In 1927 Sanger helped organize the first World Population Conference in Geneva.
Between 1921 and 1926 Sanger received over a million letters from mothers to provide information on birth control. From 1916 to teaching “in many places-halls, churches, women’s clubs, homes, theaters” to “many types of audiences-cotton workers, clergy, liberals, socialists, scientists, members of the club, and fashionable, philanthropic-minded women. ”
In 1926, Sanger gave a lecture on birth control to women’s auxiliary Ku Klux Klan in Silver Lake, New Jersey.  She described him as “one of the strange experience I had in a lecture,” and added that it should only use “the most basic terms, as if I’m trying to understand children.”   Sanger was well received by the group, and as a result of “a dozen invitations to similar groups offered.”
In 1928 Sanger resigned as President of the ABCL, severing all legal relations, and took full control of the CRB, renamed it Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau.  Two years later she became president of the Birth Control International Information Centre. In January 1932 she appeared in a new history of society, the organization created by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab and Julie Chanler, this address later become the basis for an article entitled “Plan of the world.
In 1937, Sanger became the chairman of the Council on birth control of America and started two publications Birth Control Review “and” Birth Control News. From 1939 to 1942 she was an honorary delegate of the Federation of American Birth Control, which is included as an observer with a Negro project, along with Mary Lasker and Clarence Gamble.   From 1952 to 1959 she worked as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, while it was the largest private international “family planning” organizations.
In the early 1960 Sanger contributed to the use of newly available contraceptive pill. She toured Europe, Africa and Asia, lecturing and assistance in establishing the clinic.
Sanger died in 1966 in Tucson, Arizona, 8 days shy of its eighty-seventh birthday, and only a few months after Griswold v. Connecticut decision, which legalized birth control for married couples in the U.S., the top of its 50-year-old days.
Sanger books include Woman and the New Generation “(1920), Pivot Civilization (1922), Happiness in Marriage (1926), my struggle for birth control (1931) and autobiography (1938).
The book, Motherhood in Bondage, a large collection of actual letters that were written by Margaret Sanger in desperation, thousands of women who have requested to receive information on how they can prevent pregnancy for a large number of different reasons
Although Sanger was greatly influenced by her father, her mother left her with a deep sense of dissatisfaction with respect to its own understanding of society and women’s health and childbirth. She also criticized the censorship of her message about sexuality and contraception, civil and religious authorities as an attempt by men to keep women in subjection. Atheist, Sanger attacked Christian leaders against her message, accusing them of obscurantism and insensitivity to women’s issues. Sanger was particularly important in the lack of awareness about the dangers and lack of opportunities for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases among women. She argued that these social problems are the result of male institutions deliberately keep women in ignorance. Sanger also deplored the lack of modern rules requiring registration of people with sexually transmitted diseases (which she contrasted with mandatory registration of persons with communicable diseases such as measles).
Psychology Of  Sexuality :
Aware of Sanger and practical approach to human physiology were progressive for its time, her thoughts on the psychology of human sexuality place her right in the pre-Freudian nineteenth century . Contraceptives, it would seem, was to her more money to limit unwanted side effects of sex than a way to release the men and women to enjoy it [original research?]. In what every girl should know, she writes: “Every normal man and woman has the right to control and direct his sexual impulse. The man and woman, which he controls and constantly use their brain cells thinking deeply, never sensible.” Sexuality for her a kind of weakness, and he said, breaking the force.
Sanger also affects psychologist Havelock Ellis, in particular in relation to his theories about female sexuality and its importance.  His views have inspired Sanger to expand their arguments for birth control, arguing that in addition to the already large number of reasons, it would also fulfill a critical psychological need, allowing women to fully enjoy a sexual relationship, free from fear of unwanted pregnancy.   After Sanger and her husband divorced later, Sanger had an affair with Ellis, and reportedly a close relationship with HG Wells  .
Although the germ cells located in parts of the anatomy for the main purpose of easily expelling them into women to reproduction, there are other elements in the sexual fluids, which are the essence of blood, nerves, brain and muscles. When redirected to building and strengthening of these, we find that men and women of the greatest endurance highest magnetic energy. A girl can waste the creative forces of love to ponder the extent of the exhaustion of its system, and the results do not differ from the effects of masturbation and debauchery.
Eugenics And Euthanasia :

Margaret Sanger was an advocate of negative eugenics, social philosophy, which asserts that human hereditary traits can be improved through social action. Sanger in hereditary politicians ran to the removal of immigration policy, free access to birth control methods, and complete autonomy in family planning for the able-minded, as well as a mandatory separation or sterilization for deeply depressed. It specifically condemned euthanasia as a tool of eugenics.
The plan of the world (1932), for example, Sanger suggested Congress Department:
Keep doors closed to immigration entrance of certain aliens whose condition is known to be detrimental to endurance races, such as feebleminded, idiots, morons, insane, syphilitic, epileptic, criminal, professional prostitutes, others in this class barred by immigration laws in 1924 .
And, the following:
Best stern and rigid policy of sterilization and segregation to that grade of population whose progeny is already outdated, or whose inheritance is such that undesirable traits can be transmitted to the offspring .
Sanger saw birth control as a means to prevent “dysgenic” children from birth in a disadvantaged life, and dismissed “positive eugenics” (which promoted greater fertility “fitter” upper classes), and inappropriate. While many leaders in the negative eugenics movement calling for active euthanasia “is not suitable,” Sanger spoke out against such methods. She believes that women have the power and knowledge of birth control was in the best position to produce “fit” children. She rejected any of eugenics that would take control in the hands of those actually giving birth.
Sanger believes that the responsibility for birth control, should remain in the hands of a skilled minded individual parents, not the state, but independent of motherhood was the only unshakeable foundation for improving the race, she wrote:
“The campaign for birth control not only of eugenic value, but practically coincides with the ultimate goal of eugenics …. We are convinced that racial regeneration, like individual regeneration, must come from within. That is, it must be autonomous, self-directive, and not imposed from outside. ”
We believe that a woman has sufficient knowledge of her reproductive functions is the best judge of time and conditions under which the child should be brought into the world. In addition, we believe that it is right, regardless of all other considerations, to determine whether she would bear children or not, and how many children she shall bear if she wants to become a mother … Only in the case of a free, self-determining motherhood can be any unshakable structure of racial improvement.
Freedom Of Speech :
Margaret Sanger was an ardent defender of freedom of speech had been arrested at least 8 times to express their views at a time when public speaking in favor of birth control was illegal. She said in an interview that she was under the influence of an agnostic orator Robert G. Ingersoll, who spoke in his native town, when she was 12 years old.

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